vi medicine informatics




Medical approaches to treating achalasia include using a calcium channel blocker, nitroglycerin, or botulinum toxin injections in the LES. Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine decrease the availability of calcium to the myosin-actin complex, leading to smooth muscle relaxation. Nitroglycerin works through a cGMP-mediated mechanism to dephosphorylate and inactivate myosin light chains. Botulinum toxin causes muscle paralysis by inhibiting the exocytosis of acetylcholine from presynaptic neurons. Surgical corrections include pneumatic dilation and esophageal myotomy.

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