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In its early stages, acute rheumatic fever can cause mitral regurgitation; however, this is not always the case. In later stages, stenosis can develop (mitral > aortic > tricuspid) as the valve orifice narrows. Such a condition is evidenced by the presence of a murmur and a possible arrhythmia. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and acute rheumatic fever are immune-mediated type II hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in an M protein cross- reaction with host antigens (molecular mimicry). Although treatment with penicillin at the time of infection greatly reduces the risk of developing acute rheumatic fever, it does not prevent poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis sequelae.

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