vi medicine informatics




High blood pressure and signs of end-organ damage (papilledema, retinopathy) are indicative of hypertensive emergency. Approximately 90% of hypertensive crises are due to primary hypertension. The remaining 10% of hypertensive crises are secondary to an existing condition (secondary hypertension) such as renal artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia, chronic kidney disease, or hyperaldosteronism. Such conditions can predispose patients to hypertensive retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, aneurysm, and acute kidney injury.

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